Public Pension Insurance System

All japanese residents are supposed to join a public pension insurance plan, as long as they reache the designated age. This rule is applied to foreign nationals living in Japan, too.

The major plans which compose the Japanese Public Pension Insurance system are the following;

Most people join either of these 2 plans. However, these 2 plans don't paralle each other. The National Pension Insurance plan is often compared to the first floor of a building, and the Employees' Pension Insurance Plan is compared to the second floor. It means the latter is an expanded plan for regular employees. Indeed, People joining the latter plan are treated as if they also join the former Plan, via the latter Plan.

The Insurance Benefits of these plans are payments of pensions, of course. People, who contribute the premiums for at least 10 years, shall receive pension benefits every 2 months since they reach the designated age. The amount of the pension benefits varies according to how much and how long the relevant insured contributes until he/she reaches the designated age.

However, many people, particularly under 40', assume the pension benefits shall not be proportionate to the premiums burden, because the Japanese public pension insurance system appears almost financially ruined. Therefore, the premiums imposed by this system is regarded a kind of tax without any promise of a return. But, I would like to note that the contribution of the premiums of the public insurance system shall be a better investment than most of private financial products, even though it is never enough to secure youre revenues after you retire.

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〔In Japanese〕



これらの2制度は、並列的なものではありません。国民年金保険は建物の1階部分に、厚生年金保険が建物の2階部分に例えられることも多く、厚生年金保険は、正規従業員のために充実された年金保険制度であるといえます。 厚生年金保険の加入者は厚生年金制度を通じて国民年金保険にも加入しているかのように扱われます。


しかし、多くの人、特に40歳台以下の人は、その保険料負担に見合う年金を受け取れるとは期待していません。常識的に考えて、日本の公的年金制度の財政は破綻しているようにみえるからです。 この観点からすると、公的年金制度の保険料は、反対給付のない税金そのものといえるでしょう。とはいえ、この公的年金制度は、少なくとも、他の民間の保険商品よりはマシであることは指摘しておきたいと思います。

Classification of the Insured

Regarding the Public Pension Insurance system, Japanese residents are classified into following 3 categories.

(1) TYPE 1 Insured

People mentioned below are classified into the TYPE 1 insureds and covered by the National Pension Insurance plan.

(2) TYPE 2 Insured

People mentioned below are classified into the TYPE 2 insureds and covered by the Employees' Pension Insurance plan.

(3) TYPE 3 Insured

Spouses of the TYPE 2 insureds, who meet all of the following conditions are classified into the TYPE 3 insureds and covered by the Employees'l Pension Insurance plan, combined with their husbands/wives. Since April 2020, people who live abroad get disqualified as the TYPE 3 insureds, unless it is assumed that they keep domiciles in Japan by meeting certain requirements.

〔In Japanese〕


(1) 第1号被保険者


(2) 第2号被保険者


(3) 第3号被保険者

第2号被保険者の配偶者のうち、20歳以上60歳までの者で、下記の要件を満たす者は、第3号被保険者として、その夫または妻とともに厚生年金保険の加入者となります。 2020年4月から、所定の要件を満たすことにより日本国内に生活の基礎が残っているとみなされる場合を除き、国外に居住する人は第3号被保険者から除かれることとなりました。

International Adjustment

If you leave Japan before you become qualified to receive the pension, you are able to receive a Lump Sum Withdrawal payment, provided you have contributed for more than 6 months. In such cases, you may have an alternative and make the enrollment period in the Japanese pension system added to the enrollment period in the similar system in the new country. For example, Germany, UK, Korea, USA, France, Australia and etc,. conclude appropriate agreements with Japan. If you leave for these countries, maybe it is less advantageous to claim the Lump Sum Withdrawal payment.

The Japan-China Agreement about Social Security has come into effect on September 1st, 2019. This new agreement resolves the unreasonable double enrollment into the 2 countries' plan. Even if we pay premiums for some years, we can not receive any benefits. Hereafter, many of workers of Chinese companies relocated across the border are allowed to join only their home country's plan.To claim this new treatment, it is necessary to submit evidential documents. In case you are a worker of a Chinese company relocated to an office in Japan, you can get the certificate at the Social Security administration center. After you come to Japan, you shall submit the certificate at the Japanese pension office. In case you have worked in Japan for some time and you are eligible for this new treatment, please take corresponding procedures. You and your company shall be released from the futile payment of the expensive premiumes.

〔In Japanese〕

もし、年金の受給権を得る前に出国する場合には、保険料納付期間が6か月以上あることを前提に、還付金を受け取ることができます。 この場合、日本での年金制度加入期間を出国先の類似制度における加入期間に加算することができるかもしれません。 ドイツ、イギリス、韓国、米国、フランス、オーストラリアなどは、日本とこれを認める条約を結んでいます。これらの国へ移住する場合には、還付金を受け取ることが不利になることもありますので、注意してください。

2019年9月1日に、新しく日中社会保障協定が発効しました。この新たな協定により、双方の社会保障制度に加入するという不合理が解消されます。数年間だけ年金保険料を納めたからといって、年金給付を得られるわけではありません。 今後は、中国企業の従業員が国境をまたいで日本に派遣されてきた場合、中国の年金保険制度だけに加入することで良くなります。この新しい取扱いを受けるためには、適用証明書を提出する必要があります。 中国企業の従業員が日本に転勤になる場合、中国の社会保険管理センターにおいて、適用証明書の交付申請をします。 そして、日本の年金事務所に提出します。 従来から日本国内の事業所に勤務していた方についても、同様の手続きをとってください。これにより、貴方と貴方の勤め先企業は、無益な保険料負担から解放されます。